Photo of Xiao Liu

Xiao Liu

Assistant Professor


  • Biomedical Engineering

315 Hallowell Building


Personal or Departmental Website

Research Areas:


Interest Areas:




  • BE, Mechanics and Engineering Science, Beijing University, 2002
  • M.Eng, Biomedical Engineering, Beijing University, 2005
  • Ph D, Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 2010
  • MS, Statistics, University of Minnesota, 2010


Journal Articles

  • Xiao Liu, J A De Zwart, M L Scholvinck, C Chang, F Q Ye, D A Leopold and J H Duyn, 2018, "Subcortical evidence for a contribution of arousal to fMRI studies of brain activity", Nature communications, In press
  • C Chang, D A Leopold, M L Scholvinck, H Mandelkow, D Picchioni, Xiao Liu, F Q Ye, J N Turchi and J H Duyn, 2016, "Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 113, (16), pp. 4518–4523
  • Xiao Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, C Chang, H Ishida, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2015, "Arousal transitions in sleep, wakefulness, and anesthesia are characterized by an orderly sequence of cortical events", NeuroImage, 116, pp. 222--231
  • Xiao Liu, T Yanagawa, D A Leopold, N Fujii and J H Duyn, 2014, "Robust Long-Range Coordination of Spontaneous Neural Activity in Waking, Sleep and Anesthesia", Cerebral cortex
  • Xiao Liu, C Chang and J H Duyn, 2013, "Decomposition of spontaneous brain activity into distinct fMRI co-activation patterns", Front Syst Neurosci, 7, pp. 101
  • Catie Chang, Zhongming Liu, Michael C. Chen, Xiao Liu and Jeff H. Duyn, 2013, "EEG correlates of time-varying BOLD functional connectivity", NeuroImage, 72, pp. 227--236
  • Xiao Liu and J H Duyn, 2013, "Time-Varying Functional Network Information Extracted from Brief Instances of Spontaneous Brain Activity", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110, (11), pp. 4392--4397
  • Xiao Liu, X H Zhu, P Qiu and W Chen, 2012, "A correlation-matrix-based hierarchical clustering method for functional connectivity analysis", Journal of neuroscience methods, 211, (1), pp. 94--102
  • Xiao Liu, X H Zhu and W Chen, 2011, "Baseline BOLD correlation predicts individuals' stimulus-evoked BOLD responses", Neuroimage, 54, (3), pp. 2278--2286
  • Xiao Liu, Xiao-Hong Zhu and Wei Chen, 2011, "Distinction in Coherent Neural Network Between Resting and Working Brain States", Brain Connectivity, 1, (5), pp. 377--388
  • Xiao Liu, Xiao Hong Zhu, Yi Zhang and Wei Chen, 2010, "Neural Origin of Spontaneous Hemodynamic Fluctuations in Rats under Burst-Suppression Anesthesia Condition", Cereb Cortex, 21, (2), pp. 374--384
  • W Chen, Xiao Liu, X H Zhu and Nanyin Zhang, 2009, "Functional MRI study of brain function under resting and activated states", Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc, 2009, pp. 4061--4063
  • Xiao Liu, Zhi yu Tang, Zhu Zeng, Xi Chen, Wei juan Yao, Zong yi Yan, Yan Shi, Hui xian Shan, Da gong Sun, Dong qi He and Zong yao Wen, 2007, "The measurement of shear modulus and membrane surface viscosity of RBC membrane with Ektacytometry: A new technique", Mathematical Biosciences, 209, (1), pp. 190--204
  • Z Zeng, Xiao Liu, Y Jiang, G Wang, J Zhan, J Guo, W Yao, D Sun, W Ka, Y Tang, J Tang, Z Wen and S Chien, 2006, "Biophysical studies on the differentiation of human CD14+ monocytes into dendritic cells", Cell Biochem Biophys, 45, (1), pp. 19--30
  • Xiao Liu, Nanyin Zhang, Catie Chang and Jeff H Duyn, , "Co-activation patterns in resting-state fMRI signals", NeuroImage

Conference Proceedings

Research Projects

  • September 2016 - August 2019, "Neural Basis of Resting-State Functional Connectivity," (Sponsor: NINDS (K99/R00)).
  • July 2017 - July 2018, "Understanding and modifying the effects of chemotherapy on brain function," (Sponsor: Clinical and translational Science institute Bridges to translation RFA-Pilot funding (Penn State Internal)).

Honors and Awards


Service to Penn State:

  • Committee Member, BME PhD Candidacy Exam Commitee, January 2017 - January 2018
  • Committee Member, Institute for CyberScience, ICS Coordinating Committee, November 2017
  • Committee Member, Research Computing Committee, October 2017

Service to External Organizations:




The Department of Biomedical Engineering administers the undergraduate major in biomedical engineering, and is a part of the university-wide Intercollege Graduate Degree Program, offering both M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in Bioengineering. Our work combines traditional engineering principles with medicine and technology for the betterment of human health and society. 

Department of Biomedical Engineering

205 Hallowell Building

The Pennsylvania State University

University Park, PA 16802-4400

Phone: 814-863-6614